Application of Biosenser Notes biotechnology For B.Sc

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#mathsbygautamsir#Protein engineering is the process by which a researcher modifies a protein sequence through substitution, insertion, or deletion of nucleotides in the encoding gene, with the goal of obtaining a modified protein that is more suitable for a particular application or purpose than the unmodified protein# Protein Engineering

2000). An example of a fungal enzyme for which the properties have been modified by site directed mutagenesis based on the crystal structure includes a lipase from Humicola lanuginosa used in household detergents to improve lipid removal (Boel and Jensen 1989)#The selective, deliberate (re)designing and synthesis of proteins. Context: This is done in order to cause the resultant proteins to carry out desired (new) functions. Protein engineering is accomplished by changing or interchanging individual amino acids in a normal protein#There are three major approaches of protein engineering research, namely, directed evolution, rational design, and de novo design. Rational design is an effective method of protein engineering when the threedimensional structure and mechanism of the protein is well known#Bachelors’ degree in chemical engineering, chemistry, immunology, molecular biology, or related field, and a minimum of five years of work experience in pharmaceutical or biotech industry. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Comprehensive understanding of scientific principles#Generally speaking, protein engineering can be described as the the second genetic engineering that is based on genetic analyses#Protein engineering is the process by which a researcher modifies a protein sequence through substitution, insertion, or deletion of nucleotides in the encoding gene, with the goal of obtaining a modified protein that is more suitable for a particular application or purpose than the unmodified protein#
In summary, protein engineering is essential to many biotechnology applications. It creates more stable enzymes for industrial use, enzymes with new substrate or cofactor specificity, novel enzymes with directed evolution, combinatorial libraries, or the use of non-natural amino acids#
There are three major approaches of protein engineering research, namely, directed evolution, rational design, and de novo design. Rational design is an effective method of protein engineering when the threedimensional structure and mechanism of the protein is well known#“Protein engineers” (actually genetic engineers) use recombinant DNA technology to alter a particular nucleotide in the triplet codon of the DNA of a cell. In this way it is hoped that the resulting DNA codes for the different (new) amino acid in the desired location in the protein produced by that cell#Medical Biotechnology

Recombinant proteins provided important breakthroughs in biomedical biotechnology. They are not only used in biomedical research but also in treatment, as drugs. The first recombinant protein used in treatment was recombinant human insulin in 1982#There are two general strategies for protein engineering: rational protein design and directed evolution. These methods are not mutually exclusive; researchers will often apply both#Proteins are the workhorse in biological systems facilitating most of biological processes in a cell, including gene expression, cell growth, proliferation, nutrient uptake, intercellular communication and apoptosis#human, environmental, industrial, animal and plant
develop or create different products

Key applications of biotechnology include:
DNA profiling – for further information see the article DNA profiling.
DNA cloning – for further information see the article DNA cloning.
transgenesis.
genome analysis.
stem cells and tissue engineering – for further information see the article Stem cells.

he main subfields of biotechnology are medical (red) biotechnology, agricultural (green) biotechnology, industrial (white) biotechnology, marine (blue) biotechnology, food biotechnology, and environmental biotechnology#

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